jueves, 10 de diciembre de 2009

Linking words, addition, contrast,cause, condition/ Conectores...

Positive addition
and, both...and,too, besides(this/that), moreover, what is more, in addition(to), also, as well as (this/that), furthermore, etc

She was both rude and unhelpful.

Negative addition
Neither(... nor), nor, neither, either, etc.

Neither Rolando nor Alfonso bought a car today.

Contrast
The car is old but reliable.

Note structures
although + clause
Although it was raining , he left.


despite/ in spite of + noun
Despite the rain, he left.


despite/ in spite of the fact + clause

In spite of the fact that it was raining , he left.


Giving examples

such as, like,for instance, especially, in particular, etc

The food was delicious, specially the steak. It was excellent.

Cause / Reason

as, because of, since, for this reason, due to, as a result (of), etc

He switched on the Tv because he wanted to watch the news.

Condition
if, whether, only if, in case, providing(that), unless, as/ so long as, otherwise, or (else), on condition(that) , etc

She agreed to lend her the money provided that she pain him back as soon as possible.

Purpose
to, so that, so as(not) to, in order that, in case, etc
Rob caught the early train so that he would be there on time.


Effect / Result
such/so...that, so, consequently, as a result, therefore, for this reason, etc.
She was bored so she decided to go for a walk.

Time
Jhon said that he would call us as soon as he finished.

Exception
Everybody was there except for Janet who was going to meet us later.

Future perfect continuous/ Futuro perfecto continuo

Forma
will + have + been + verbo en ing


Para este tiempo es mas importante señalar el proceso de la acción que el resultado de la misma.

Usos
-Indica cuanto durará un evento en progreso en el futuro.
- Enfatiza cuanto tiempo llevarà un evento o acción en el futuro.
-Indica dos acciones que ocurren en el futuro,un acción detras de otra.
-

Time expresions que van con el futuro perfecto continuo
.By .....for.

Otras expresiones que indican futuro

next year / El proximo año
next week / La próxima semana
next month etc. / El pròximo mes
the exact came can be stated /
the approximate can can be stated

By the end of this month, he will have been working at this radio station for ten years.
A finales del mes el habra estado trabajando en la estación de radio por diez años.

Tomorrow, he´ll have been working for a week.
Mañana el habrá estado trabajando durante una semana.
( Mañana, él habrá estado trabajando durante una semana


In the fall I will have been studying here for 2 years.
My son will have been in teaching for 10 years next month.
The teacher will have been teaching my children for 5 years next month.
The dogs will have been playing for 3 hours in 10 minutes.
Tammy will be very tired when she comes home, because she will have been flying over 24 hours.

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/futureperfect.html
http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/futureperfect.htm

miércoles, 9 de diciembre de 2009

Future perfect

Estructura

will + have + participio pasado
הַתִּקְוָה

You will have perfected your German by the time you come back from Germany./
Tu habrás perfeccionado el alemán al mismo tiempo que regreses de Alemania.

Will you have perfected your German by the time you come back from Germany?
¿Habrás perfeccionado el alemán al mismo tiempo que regreses de Alemania?

You will not have perfected your Germany by the time you come back from Germany.
Tú no habrás perfeccionado el alemán al mismo tiempo de que regreses de Alemania.


Expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al futuro perfecto son:

before,by,by then, by the time


Solo en oracione negativas until/ till

He won't have finished writting the book until/ till Friday.

had better/ would rather

Had better

had better = Seria bueno que...

se usa para hablar de un consejo muy serio que se debe ejecutar de inmediato
,se refiere a una acción del presente o del futuro

Had better + infinitivo sin to +
You had better buy the ticketts tonight.
Seria bueno / Deberias comprar los boletos estas noche.

Would rather
Would rather = preferiría

Se usa para expresar preferencia.


Cuando el sujeto de would rather es el mismo del verbo siguiente:
Se usan las siguientes construcciones

presente o futuro
would rather + verbo en presente o futuro sin to
I would rather go to the cinema tomorrow afternoon.
Preferiria ir al cine mañana por la tarde.

would rather + tiempo pasado sin to
I would rather have gone to the museum with Tom.
Preferiria haber ido al museo con Tom.

Would rather + verbo sin to + than + verbo sin to
I would rather go to the concert with you than (go) with Joe.
Prefiero ir al concierto contigo que ircon Joe.

Cuando el sujeto de would rather es diferente al del siguiente verbo :
Se usan las siguientes construcciones
pasado simple para referirrse al presente o al futuro
would rather + pasado simple
I would rather John finished the article before he leaves.

Pasado
would rather + pasado perfecto
I would rather we had arrived at the theatre earlier because we missed the start of the play.
Preferiria que hubiesemos llegado al teatro mas temprano porque perdimos el inicio de la obra.

wishes/ Deseos- whish/if + only= para expresar un deseo

Pasado simple o continuo

wish/if only + pasado simple/ pasado continuo

Se usa para decir que nos gustaria ser algo diferente en el presente.

Con to be

I wish I were famous.
Desearia ser famoso

Con otros verbos

If only I played golf like my sister.
Si tan solo jugara golf como mi hermana.

I wish I were coming with you.
Desearía ir contigo.

If only John was not coming with us.
Si tan solo John no hubiese venido con nosotros.

PASADO PERFECTO

Para expresar arrepentimiento de algo que ocurrió o no ocurrió en el pasado.
wish / If only + pasado perfecto(had + participio pasado)

I wish I had gone to the cementery with them.
Hubiese ido con ellos al cementerio.

If only I had learned to play the violin when I was younger.
Si tan solo hubiera aprendido a tocar el violín cuando estaba mas joven.


Con un sujeto y con would

wish/ if only + subject(sujeto) + would


Se usa para expresar el modo imperativo de una forma cortes
Para mostrar el deseo de que la conducta de una persona o que una situación cammbie

I wish you would come to lessons on time.
Desearia que vinieras a las lecciones a tiempo.

If only it would stop raining.
Si tan solo dejara de llover.

Type 3 Conditional/ Tercer condicional

Se usa para expresar situaciones irreales que nunca ocurrieron en el pasado , y usualmente se emite una critica , queja o remordimiento por lo que no se hizo.

IF + Pasado perfecto + would/could/ might + have + participio pasado

If you hadn't made that mistake, you'd have passed your test.

Si no hubieras cometido ese error, habrías aprobado el test).


If I had seen him, I would have told him about you.
Si lo hubiese visto, le habría contado acerca de ti.


If we had studied harder, we might have passed the test.
Si hubiésemos estudiado más duro, podríamos haber aprobado la prueba.

If I hadn't been so busy, I could have helped you.

Si no hubiese estado tan ocupado, te podría haber ayudado.


If they hadn't drunk so much last night, they wouldn't have felt sick today.

Si no hubiesen tomado tanto anoche, no se habrían sentido enfermos hoy.


If he had worked more, he could have saved more money.

Si él hubiese trabajado más, podría haber ahorrado más dinero.



Type2 Conditionals( segundo condicional)

El segundo condicional se usa para expresar situaciones imaginarias o imposibles (que ocurran) en el presente o en el futuro. Se usa para expresar cosas que no pasan o que no pasarán.


Con el verbo to be
Se usa were con todas las personas en la primera parte de la oración

IF + were(PASADO SIMPLE) + woul/could/might + infinitivo sin to

If I were taller, I could be a basketball player./
Si yo fuera mas alto, podria ser jugador de basketbol.

If I were poor, I might work in a restaurant./
Si fuera rico , podria trabajar en un restaurant.

If I were you, I would go and see a doctor./
Si yo fuera tu, iria y veria a un medico.

Con los demas verbos

IF + pasado simple + woul/could/might + infinitivo sin to

If elephants had wings, they would be able to fly.
Si los elefantes tuvieran alas, podrían volar.


If I won the lottery , I would travel around the world.
Si ganara la lotería, viajaría por todo el mundo.

If they worked for that company, they might have better salaries.
Si ellos trabajaran para esa compañía, podrían tener mejores sueldos.




martes, 15 de septiembre de 2009

Household Chores / Labores del hogar

wash the dishes
do the beds






http://mommylevy.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Household-chores.jpg
http://www.lingvistov.ru/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/image001.jpg

Vocabulary of adjectives to describe a house/ Vocabulario de adjetivos para describir una casa

economical= económico(a)
impractical = práctico( a)
cold= frío(a)
spacious= espacioso(a)
cramped= hacinado, amontonado(a)
airy= ventilado
comfortable = cómodo(a)
attractive= atractivo(a)
eccentric= excéntrico


To describe a house we need to think about:

-type of house


traditional = tradicional
modern = moderna
apartament/ flat = apartamento en un edificio, piso
( semi)detached = semi-independiente ( comparte una pared con otra casa)
terraced house = casa adosada ( casas pegadas unas con otras como el infonavit)
cottage = casa de campo
villa = casa de tiempo compartido, en el campo es una casa con jardìn grande o es una casa en el pueblo o es una antigua casa romana o una granja con tierra alrededor
1/2/3 storey buildings = edificio o casa de 1/2/3 plantas
castle = castillo

en estos enlaces hay tipos de casas
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/houses/main/

http://www.propertyinvestmentproject.co.uk/blog/2007/02/05/types-of-houses/

-location
city = en la ciudad
central located = centrico
residential area = en área residencial
close to the shops = cerca de las tiendas
in the suburns = en los suburbios
on the outskirts = en las afueras
isolated = aislado
in the country = en el campo

-special features

-general description
cosy = acogedor
comfortable = cómodo
secure = seguro
luxurious = de lujo
well- maintained = bien conservada
fully furnished = totalmente amueblada
airy = aireado, ventilado
noisy = ruidoso
cold = frío

-cost
cheap = barato
low-priced= a bajo costo
overpriced = muy costoso
expensive = costoso
economical = economico

-Sizesmall = chica
tiny = pequeña
spacious = espaciosa, amplia
large = grande
huge = enorme
average = mediana, termino medio
family-sized = familiar
1-/2- bedroomed = 1-/2- dormitorios

http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/houses/main/
link con ejercicios para describir una casa
http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/teacher/community_lang/house/english/house.htm
village
= en el pueblo

lunes, 31 de agosto de 2009

Bring out

1.- I've just brought out a little book on Dovstoevski.
Colin Bradbury has now brought out a second album.

2.- These dreadful circustances bring out the worst inabsolutely everybody.
He brings out the animal in me.

3.- The effect is to bring out all sorts of things in the poetry,
In both works, Guillini brings out a sort of serenity.

4.- It's really brought him out, and its done him the world of good.

5.- Strawberries bring me out in blotches.

6.- Then even brought out a few English words,...It's so tyical"
Etta at last
brought out.

Break off

1.-When part of something breaks off or when you break it off, this part of the main object is removed by being broken.

Peter broke off another piece of bread and chewed at it.
I broke a branch off and stabbed at the ground with it.
A little bit has broken off the left hand corner.

2.- If you break off when you are doing or saying something, you suddenly stop doing or saying it.
He would break off the rehersal...I though - he broke off, then smiled"Sorry, not my business".

3.- If you break off a relationship or agreement with someone, you end it.
Men seem to be more skilled at breaking off relationships than women.

I've broken off my engagement.

lunes, 17 de agosto de 2009

Past participles / Participios pasados,amazed = asombrado(a),shocked=perturbado(a),surprised=sorprendido(a),etc y una imagen interactiva de un rostro

A estos past participles / participios pasados, los empleamos para mencionar como nos sentimos.
amazed = asombrado(a)
annoyed= molesto(a)
bored = aburrido(a)
confused = confundido(a)
depressed = deprimido(a)
disappointed = desilusionado(a)
discouraged = desalentado(a)
disgusted =enfadado (a) , fastidiado(a), asqueado(a)
embarrassed= avergonzado(a),
excited = emocionado(a),entusiasmado(a)
fascinated = fascinado(a), frightened = espantado(a)
frustrated = frustrado(a)
interested = interesado(a)
relaxed = relajado(a)
scared = asustado(a)
shocked = perturbador(a)
surprised = sorprendido(a)
satisfied = satisfecho(a)
wretched = miserable , desgraciado(a)



http://www.do2learn.com/games/facialexpressions/face.htmimagen interactiva con gestos y expresiones

Devices domestic appliances (divaices domèstic aplians)= Aparatos electrodomésticos

air conditioner = aire acondicionado
blender = licuadora
digital camera = camara digital
dishwasher = máquina lavaplatos
dryer = secadora de ropa
dvd = reproductor de video digital
fan = ventilador
hairdryer = secadora de pelo
heater = calefactor
iron = plancha
microwave oven = horno de microondas
oven = horno
stove = estufa
refrigerator = refrigerador
vacuum cleaner = aspiradora
washer= lavadora

Equipments office( equipmemts ofis) = Equipos de oficina

computer = computadora
correction fluid = corrector liquido
desk = escritorio
fax machine = fax
glue = egamento blanco
ink pad = cojin de tinta
laser printer = impresora laser
MP4 = reproductor de audio, video y fotografia
mouse = raton de computadora
paper clip = clip
paper cutter = guillotina
plastic binding machine = enmicadora
photocopier= fotocopiadora
rube stamp = sello
staples = grapas
stapler = engrapadora
telephone = telefono
tape dispenser = dispensador de diurex
usb memory = memoria usb
whiteboard = pizarron blanco

Tools( tuls) = Herramientas

chinsel= cincel
electric drill = taladro eléctrico
grass cutter= cortadora de césped
hammer = martillo
hatchet = hacha
hoe = azadon
hydraulic trolley Jack = gato hidráulico
nut = tuerca
paint brush = brocha
pliers = pinza
sand paper = papel lija
saw = serrucho
scraper = rascador
screwdriver = destornillador
shovel = pala
tile cutting machine = cortadora de azulejo
tool box = máquina de herramientas
trowel = paleta
wire = alambre
wrench = llave inglesa