lunes, 21 de noviembre de 2011

EL COMPARATIVO/ tHE COMPARATIVE FORM


comparative & superlative from erhan ergenler on Vimeo.

comparatives from erhan ergenler on Vimeo.


En inglés para hacer comparaciones debes plantearte las siguientes preguntas:
¿El adjetivo a comparar es de una silaba? En caso de ser así ¿termina en vocal, consonante, en vocal seguida de una consonante?

¿Qué haces si el adjetivo a comparar es de dos sílabas o más?

¿Como se hacen las comparaciones negativas y como se estructuran?

Observa las respuestas:

1 ¿Cómo formar el comparativo de palabras de una silaba que terminan en consonante?

Ejemplos de adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan en “consonante”

cheap, clean, dark, light, long, neat, plain, short, slow, small, sweet

a) Como primer paso debes agregar –er al adjetivo: cheap +er = cheaper

b) En segundo lugar debes colocar than después del adjetivo: This toy is cheaper than yours.

c) Para la negación tienes que colocar not as antes del adjetivo: This toy is not as cheap as yours.

¡Ahora vas a practicar¡

Instrucción para el alumno: Añade –er a la palabra entre paréntesis

Manuel is a short man but his brother is (short) shorter than him, but his father is not as short as him.

My room is very dark but the living room is (dark) darker than the Monster’s house.

Instrucción para el usuario: Añade than después del adjetivo

This computer is slower than a turtle I need a faster one.

My dessert is sweeter than I expected, I don’t want it.
Ejercicio:

Instrucción para el usuario: En la negación use not as antes del adjetivo

This office is darker than my bedroom, but your office is not as dark as this one.

Your desk is very clean but his desk is not as clean as yours.

2 ¿Cómo formar el comparativo con adjetivos de una silaba que terminan en “e”?

Ejemplos de adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan con “e”

nice, fine, loose

Sigue los pasos a continuación:

a) Añade –r, al adjetivo: nice + er= nicer

b) Coloca than después del adjetivo: This day is nicer than yesterday.

b) Para formar la negación escribe not as antes del adjetivo: This day is not as nice as yesterday.

Es necesario que practiques, haz lo que se te indica

Instrucción para el usuario: Transforma el adjetivo al grado comparativo

My boss is (nice) nicer than yours.

This old dress is (loose) looser than the new one.

This wine is (fine) finer than the one we drank yesterday.

Instrucción para el usuario: Añade than después del adjetivo

The seller was nicer than usual, I was surprised.

These new jeans are finer than yours.

I need some clothes looser than the ones I have.

Instrucción para el usuario: Coloca la negación not as antes del adjetivo

My new dress is not as loose as Patty’s.

You are not as nice as Robert.

My wine is not as fine as yours.

3) ¿Cómo formar el comparativo de adjetivos de una silaba que se forman con consonante + vocal + consonante?

Adjetivos de una sílaba formados por:

consonante(c ) + vocal(v)+ consonante (c)

big, thin, fat, hot

cvc, cvc, cvc, cvc

Sigue los pasos a continuación:

A) Repite la consonante final y añada -er. Big+ g + er = Bigger

b) Coloca than después del adjetivo: Bigger than

c) En la comparación negativa coloca not as antes del adjetivo

¡Ahora te toca practicar!

Instrucción para el alumno: Repite la consonante y agrega –er al adjetivo entre paréntesis.

Javier is a big guy, but Daniel is (big) bigger than him. I am thin but my sister is (thin) thinner than me. My boyfriend is fat but his father is (fat) fatter than him. I am here thinking is all these crazy things it could be, because of the weather, today is (hot)hotter than yesterday and my brain works better when it is quite warm, I hope the winter doesn’t arrive, if it arrives my brain will sleep.
Instrucción para el usuario: Para la forma negativa agrega not as, antes del adjetivo
Sandra is bigger than Dora, but Dora is not as big as her mother.
You are not as fast as me.
Fortín de las Flores is not as hot as Tierra Blanca.

4) ¿Cómo formar el comparativo de adjetivos de dos silabas que terminan en –y?

Adjetivos de dos sílabas que terminan con “y”

happy, crazy, funny, lonely, lovely, lazy, noisy
Para que lo logres debes hacer lo siguiente:

a) Elimina la “y”, y añade ier: pretty – y = prett + ier = prettier

b) Coloca than después del adjetivo: prettier than

c) Para una comparación negativa, escribe “not as” antes del adjetivo: She is not as pretty as me.

Ahora vas a practicar, has lo que se te pide.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Quita la -y de las siguientes palabras y agrega –ier para formar el adjetivo.

I have met a crazy guy in the bus station. He has a brother (crazy) crazier than him and both were noisier than an stadium. He is (funny) funnier than a clown, he made me laugh a lot. He asked me why I felt (lone)lonelier than a homeless , and I said that I had lost my best friend in a car accident, then he hold me in his arms , and thought that he is (lovely) lovelier than other people around.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Agrega not as antes del adjetivo para formar la negación

I am not as happy as you.

He is not as lovely as you.

My sister is not as lovely as my brother.

Students in the countriysides are not as lazy as in the city.

5¿Cómo formar el comparativo de adjetivos de dos silabas que son caso especiales?

Adjetivos de dos sílabas y que son casos especiales:

able, cruel, gente, narrow, quiet, simple
Sigue los pasos a continuación:

a) Añadae –er : able +er = crueler

b) Coloca than después del adjetivo: crueler than

b) En la negación escribe not as antes del adjetivo: He is not as cruel as you are.
Instrucciones para el usuario:

Convierte los adjetivos entre paréntesis al grado comparativo.
A hard man
There was a man in a little town, he was (cruel) crueler than a dictator. He wanted that everybody was unconditional to his negative ideas, he loved destroying people´s reputation indeed he loved lies war and ambition. The streets near his house were (narrow) narrower than streets in downtown and when he walked near his house it became (quiet) quieter than a cemetery, nobody wanted to see him. And one day, suddenly he wanted to change his mind because everybody refused him then he tried to be (gentle) gentler than before he also thought that it was neccesary to scape before justice arrive, but it was late, people put him a jail.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Agrega not as antes del adjetivo para formar la negación.
Monserrat likes hurt animals but Luisa is not as cruel as she is, Luisa loves them.
Luisa is not as quiet as his boyfriend who doesn`t say a word when people hurts dogs or cats. She likes taking care of living beings, his boyfriend is not as gentle as she wanted he was.
6 ¿Cómo formar el grado comparativo en adjetivos de dos, tres silabas o más que nos son casos especiales?

Adjetivos de tres sílabas o más
capable, careful, decent, difficult, expensive, famous, important, jealous, modest, patient, popular, ridiculous, wonderful
Debes hacer lo siguiente:
a) Utiliza el modelo: more +adjetivo + than

This house is more expensive than mine.

b) En una comparación negativa use not as “o” less antes del adjetivo:

not as + adjetivo + as

This house is not as expensive as mine.

less+ adjetivo+ than

This house is less expensive than mine.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Coloca more y than en los espacios en blanco, primero more y luego than para que aprendas la estructura.

My doctor is more patient than his partners.

Mary’s new car is more expensive than mine.

Coatepec is more famous than Xico.

Your boyfriend is more jealous than mine.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Coloque “not as” antes del adjetivo

Paquita la del barrio is not as popular as Gloria Trevi

Xico is not as important as Xalapa.

Ahora coloca “ less” en los espacios en blanco

My doctor is less patient than his partners.

This exam is less difficult than the last one.

7¿Como formar el grado comparativo para los adjetivos que tienen formas irregulares?
Adjetivos que tienen formas irregulares
bad, good, little, many
Pasos que debes seguir:

a) Convierte a bad en worse, a good en better,a little en less, many en more y enseguida agrega than

b) Para formar la negación de estos adjetivos utiliza para bad su negación es: not as bad, en good= not as good, en many= not as many , en little la negación es not as much.

Instrucciones para el usuario: Coloca worse,better, many, less y not as para formar la negación.

Sara thinks that cleaning a house is bad for his health.

She thinks that cleaning a hospital is worse than working at home.

She thinks that taking care of children is not as bad as working in a school.

My husband loves baking good cakes.

My mother´s cake is better than the ones he prepares.

The cakes I prepare are not as good as my husband’s.

Luis is a dreamer, he has many books of poetry in his desk.

Lidia has more books of poetry than Luis.

But I have not as many books of poetry as Lidia and Luis.
Hector likes little sugar in his coffee.

Fernando likes less sugar in his coffee than Hector.

I like not as much sugar as they do.



Ejercicios que pueden realizar , les comparto una página que encontré en la red donde practicar este tema:



http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/single/compare1.htm